The reason to install a master link to your bike chain is to have an easy way of removing the chain when you need to wash it thoroughly or replace it together.
To install a master link on a bike chain you need to remove a pin from the chain using a chain breaker tool and then install the new master link in place of the old removed outer plates. Apply force when connected on both sides to properly lock it in place.
There are multiple solutions on how to fix a bike pedal that fell off. Some involve replacement parts, while others just some elbow grease.
The bike pieces involved in this issue are few. Your pedal is not connected to the crank arm anymore.
Why does a bike pedal fall off?
The point of contact of the pedal and the crank arm are the threads, so that’s the culprit in most cases. Damaged threads appear by cross-threading. That happens when trying to thread the pedal at an angle. Or not screwing the whole way leaves the pedal some wiggle room to do some damage. The other reason would be a damaged crank arm, which requires a replacement.
If you’re lucky, the bike pedal got unscrewed, so the solution is to screw the pedal back in. In most cases, there’s something more wrong than that. Meaning destroyed threads or a damaged crank.